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The Second Coming

4 The Second Coming of Jesus Christ

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4.1 The Second Coming of Christ per Revelation 19:11-21
4.2 Other Accounts of the Second Coming of Christ
4.3 Darkness and Earthquake at the Second Coming of Christ
4.4 Christ Returns to Earth on the Mount of Olives
4.5 Christ Defeats the Armies Based at Armageddon
4.6 Satan Imprisoned for 1,000 Years
4.7 Church Age Believers Accompany Christ at his Second Coming
4.8 The Judgments Associated with the Second Coming of Christ
4.9 The Judgment of Living Israel
4.10 The Sheep and Goats Judgment of Living Gentiles
4.11 The First Resurrection – Of the Righteous Dead
4.12 The Judgment of the Resurrected Righteous Dead


4.1 The Second Coming of Christ per Revelation 19:11-21

“I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and makes war. …. His name is the Word of God.”
Revelation 19:11,13

The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean.”
Revelation 19:14

Out of his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations ‘He will rule them with an iron scepter.’ He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty.”
Revelation 19:15

“On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS.”
Revelation 19:16

“And I saw an angel standing in the sun, who cried in a loud voice to all the birds flying in midair, ‘Come, gather together for the great supper of God, so that you may eat the flesh of kings, generals, and mighty men, of horses and their riders, and the flesh of all people, free and slave, small and great.’”
Revelation 19:17-18

“Then I saw the Beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war against the rider on the horse and his army. But the Beast was captured, and with him the False Prophet who had performed the miraculous signs on his behalf. With these signs he had deluded those who had received the mark of the Beast and worshipped his image. The two of them were thrown alive into the fiery lake of burning sulfur.”
Revelation 19:19-20

The rest of them were killed with the sword that came out of the mouth of the rider on the horse, and all the birds gorged themselves on their flesh.”
Revelation 19:21

These armies who are all killed by Jesus Christ at his second coming, will later be among those peoples who are resurrected at the end of the Millennium (see 6.3) to undergo their final formal eternal judgment at the Great White Throne Judgment (see 6.4). And, as a result of this final judgment they, whose names are not found written in the book of life, will be thrown into the lake of fire, which is the second death. See Revelation 20:11-15.

Revelation 19:11-21 gives the overview of the Second Coming of Christ. The atmospheric conditions and the location of his return are given in 4.3 and 4.4 below. And the details of his defeat of the armies gathered against his people Israel are given in 4.5 below.

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 4.2 Other Accounts of the Second Coming of Christ

The Redeemer will come to Zion.
Isaiah 59:20

“The saints will be handed over to him (the Beast) for a time, times and half a time. But the court will sit, and his power will be taken away and completely destroyed forever.”
Daniel 7:25-26

The earth shakes, the sky trembles, the sun and moon are darkened, and the stars no longer shine. The LORD thunders at the head of his army; his forces are beyond number, and mighty are those who obey his command. The day of the LORD is great; it is dreadful. Who can endure it?”
Joel 2:10-11

“I am going to make Jerusalem a cup that sends all the surrounding peoples reeling. Judah will be besieged as well as Jerusalem. On that day, when all the nations of the earth are gathered against her, I will make Jerusalem an immovable rock for all the nations. All who try to move it will injure themselves.”
Zechariah 12:2-3

On that day the LORD will shield those who live in Jerusalem, so that the feeblest among them will be like David, and the house of David will be like God, like the Angel of the LORD going before them. On that day I will set out to destroy all the nations that attack Jerusalem. And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son.”
Zechariah 12:8-10

I will gather all nations to Jerusalem to fight against it. …. Then the LORD will go out and fight against those nations as he fights in the day of battle. On that day his feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, east of Jerusalem. …. The LORD will be king over the whole earth. On that day there will be one LORD, and his name the only name.”
Zechariah 14:2-4,9

“For as lightning that comes from the east is visible even to the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. …. Immediately after the distress of those days ‘the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.’”
Matthew 24:27,29

“At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory. And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.”
Matthew 24:30-31

“At that time men will see the Son of Man coming in the clouds with great power and glory. And he will send his angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the heavens.”
Mark 13:26-27

“There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars. …. The heavenly bodies will be shaken. At that time they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.
Luke 21:25-27

“’Men of Galilee,’ they said, ‘why do you stand here looking into the sky? This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.’ Then they returned to Jerusalem from the hill called the Mount of Olives.”
Acts 1:11-12

He must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore everything, as he promised long ago through his holy prophets.”
Acts 3:21

When the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven in blazing fire with his powerful angels. He will punish those who do not know God and do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus.”
2 Thessalonians 1:7-8

“And then the Lawless One will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will overthrow with the breath of his mouth and destroy by the splendor of his coming.”
2 Thessalonians 2:8

He (Christ) will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.
Hebrews 9:28

“See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones to judge everyone.”
Jude 14-15

“Look, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him; and all the peoples of the earth will mourn because of him.”
Revelation 1:7

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4.3 Darkness and Earthquake at the Second Coming of Christ

“See, the day of the LORD is coming. …. The stars of heaven and their constellations will not show their light. The rising sun will be darkened and the moon will not give its light.
Isaiah 13:9-10

“Oh, that you would rend the heavens and come down, that the mountains would tremble before you! …. You came down, and the mountains trembled before you.”
Isaiah 64:1,3

The day of the LORD is coming. It is close at hand—a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and blackness.
Joel 2:1-2

The earth shakes, the sky trembles, the sun and moon are darkened, and the stars no longer shine. The LORD thunders at the head of his army; his forces are beyond number, and mighty are those who obey his command. The day of the LORD is great; it is dreadful. Who can endure it?”
Joel 2:10-11

The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD.”
Joel 2:31

“Let the nations be roused; let them advance into the Valley of Jehoshaphat, for there I will sit to judge all the nations on every side. …. Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision. The sun and moon will be darkened, and the stars no longer shine. The LORD will roar from Zion and thunder from Jerusalem; the earth and the sky will tremble.
Joel 3:12,14-16

“Woe to you who long for the day of the LORD! Why do you long for the day of the LORD? That day will be darkness, not light. …. Will not the day of the LORD be darkness, not light – pitch-dark, without a ray of brightness?”
Amos 5:18,20

Will not the land tremble? …. ‘In that day,’ declares the Sovereign LORD, ‘I will make the sun go down at noon and darken the earth in broad daylight.’”
Amos 8:8-9

“The great day of the LORD is near – near and coming quickly. Listen! The cry on the day of the LORD will be bitter, the shouting of the warrior there. That day will be a day of wrath, a day of distress and anguish, a day of trouble and ruin, a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and blackness.
Zephaniah 1:14-15

“On that day his feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, east of Jerusalem, and the Mount of Olives will be split in two from east to west, forming a great valley, with half of the mountain moving north and half moving south. …. Then the LORD my God will come, and all the holy ones with him. On that day there will be no light, no cold or frost. It will be a unique day, without daytime or nighttime – a day known to the LORD. When evening comes, there will be light.”
Zechariah 14:4-7

“Immediately after the distress (Tribulation) of those days ‘the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.’”
Matthew 24:29 & Mark 13:24-25

“For the Son of Man in his day will be like the lightning, which flashes and lights up the sky from one end to the other.”
Luke 17:24

“There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars. On the earth, nations will be in anguish and perplexity at the roaring and tossing of the sea. Men will faint from terror, apprehensive of what is coming on the world, for the heavenly bodies will be shaken. At that time they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.”
Luke 21:25-27

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 4.4 Christ Returns to Earth on the Mount of Olives

“Then the LORD will go out and fight against those nations, as he fights in the day of battle. On that day his feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, east of Jerusalem, and the Mount of Olives will be split in two from east to west, forming a great valley, with half of the mountain moving north and half moving south. …. You will flee as you fled from the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Then the LORD my God will come and all the holy ones with him.”
Zechariah 14:3-5

“After he said this, he was taken up before their very eyes. …. Suddenly two men dressed in white stood before them. ‘Men of Galilee,’ they said, ‘why do you stand here looking into the sky? This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.’ Then they returned to Jerusalem from the hill called the Mount of Olives.
Acts 1:9-12

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4.5 Christ Defeats the Armies Based at Armageddon

At the sixth trumpet earlier in Revelation 9:13-19, a third of mankind is killed by a huge army of 200 million mounted troops. This huge army is probably among the armies that later gathers to the kings of the whole world at Armageddon per Revelation 16:12-16.

The huge armies of the kings are gathered together “for the war of the great day of God, the Almighty” – Revelation 16:14 NASB. They are gathered and based at Armageddon per Revelation 16:16. Note that this does not conclusively say that Armageddon is the place of the main battle, but rather that the huge armies are gathered there for the war. Armageddon is the ancient hill and valley of Megiddo located in the plain of Jezreel between Samaria and Galilee, and the adjacent broad plain is ideal for being a “staging area” for the huge armies.

Note that the Greek word “battle” in Revelation 16:14 NIV is better translated as “war” (NASB), or “campaign”. And though the armies are initially gathered at Armageddon for war, the actual main battle against Israel and the returning Christ probably instead occurs just outside Jerusalem at the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The enemy armies “advance into the Valley of Jehoshaphat” (Joel 3:2,12). Note that Zechariah 12:2-3,8-9; Zechariah 14:2-5,9,12 and Revelation 14:19-20 also seem to indicate that the main battle will be outside Jerusalem. See also Joel 2:31-32; Joel 3:1-2,9-16 & Revelation 19:11,15-21.

Note that the Day of the LORD battle mentioned in Joel 3:1-2,9-16 is said to occur in the Valley of Jehoshaphat. This valley is near Jerusalem, but the precise location is not completely clear. Unger’s Bible Dictionary says, “The Valley of Jehoshaphat is the name given to the valley situated between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. …. From about the fourth century AD the Valley of Jehoshaphat has been identified with the Kidron.” So probably it is another name for the Kidron Valley, which is between the Temple Mount and the Mount of Olives. Alternately, it is a somewhat northerly extension of the Kidron Valley, where a primarily Arab neighborhood called Emek Yehoshaphat is located between Mount Scopus and the Herod Gate in the Old City walls. A third possibility is that the Valley of Jehoshaphat is the “great valley” that is formed by the splitting of the Mount of Olives when Christ returns to earth onto the Mount of Olives, as recorded in Zechariah 14:3-5. In any case the Valley of Jehoshaphat is near or adjacent to Jerusalem.

The armies of all nations are gathered to attack Jerusalem.
See Joel 3:2,9-16; Zephaniah 3:8; Zechariah 12;2-3,9; Zechariah 14:2-4,12; Revelation 16:12-16 & Revelation 19:19.

These huge armies initially “staged’ at Armageddon are probably those that advance, attack and sack Jerusalem as recorded in Zechariah 14:2.

Then Christ returns to earth at the Mount of Olives outside Jerusalem. Initially he totally destroys the huge armies in and around Jerusalem, and in the adjacent Valley of Jehoshaphat. See Joel 3:1-2,9-16; Zechariah 12:2-3,7-9; Zechariah 14:2-9,12-16; Revelation 14:14-20 & Revelation 19:11,15-21. And probably thereafter Christ also destroys the parts of the armies that remain at Armageddon and at other locations such as Edom (see Isaiah 34:1-12 and Isaiah 63:1-6).

And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: ‘The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob. And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins.’”
Romans 11:26-27

At this time the Beast and the False Prophet are both captured and thrown into the Lake of Fire.
See Revelation 19:19-20.

Then will occur the great winepress of God’s wrath outside Jerusalem per Isaiah 63:2-6; Joel 3:13; Revelation 14:19-20 and Revelation 19:15.

Note that Revelation 19:21 indicates that Christ kills everyone in the armies who were gathered outside Jerusalem against Israel and against him.

After Christ returns from heaven to earth, several soon-after events occur as discussed in 4.6 through 4.12 below. However, the exact sequence of these next events is uncertain.

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4.6 Satan Imprisoned for 1,000 Years

Right after Christ returns to earth and destroys the opposing armies in Revelation 19:19-21, in the next verse an angel “seized the Dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the Devil, or Satan, and bound him for a thousand years. He threw him into the Abyss (Bottomless Pit), and locked and sealed it over him, to keep him from deceiving the nations anymore until the thousand years were ended.”
Revelation 20:1-3

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4.7 Church Age Believers Accompany Christ at his Second Coming

As discussed in Section 2, Church Age Believers are bodily resurrected by Christ and taken to heaven at the Rapture. 1 Thessalonians 4:17 says we: “Meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever.” Thus, presumably, to be with the Lord forever, Church Age Believers will come with Christ from heaven to earth at the Second Coming of Christ. This is supported by the following verses:

“Jesus said to them, ‘I tell you (Jesus’ disciples) the truth, at the renewal of all things (i.e. the Second Coming), when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’”
Matthew 19:28

“Do you not know that the saints (Church Age Believers) will judge the world?
1 Corinthians 6:2 NASB & KJV

“… at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all His saints (Church Age Believers).”  1 Thessalonians 3:13 NASB & KJV

“These will pay the penalty of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power, when He comes to be glorified in His saints (Church Age Believers) on that day.”
2 Thessalonians 1:9-10 NASB & KJV

“If we died with him, we will also live with him; if we endure, we will also reign with him.
2 Timothy 2:11-12

“Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints (Church Age Believers), to execute judgment upon all.”
Jude 14-15 KJV

“They will make war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will overcome them because he is Lord of lords and King of kings – and with him will be his called, chosen and faithful followers.”  Revelation 17:14

The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean.” Revelation 19:14. Note the clothing of Church Age Believers in Revelation 19:7-8.

“I saw thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge. …. Blessed and holy are those who have part in the first resurrection. …. They will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with him for a thousand years.
Revelation 20:4,6

Several passages indicate that Christ returns to earth accompanied by others.  These others are variously termed “his elect” (Matthew 24:31 & Mark 13:27); “his holy ones” (Zechariah 14:5,); “saints” (1 Corinthians 6:2 NASB; 1 Thessalonians 3:13 NASB; 2 Thessalonians 1:9-10 NASB & Jude 14-15 KJV), “we” (2 Timothy 2:11-12); “angels” (Matthew 25:31 & 2 Thessalonians 1:7); “his called” (Revelation 17:14); and “his army” (Joel 2:11 & Revelation 19:14).  These undoubtedly include Church Age Saints, as well as holy angels.

Additionally, Old Testament Saints and Tribulation Saints (those saints who die during the Tribulation) will accompany Christ at his Second Coming to earth.  They may to be souls to be re-united with their bodies, to become resurrected saints per 4.11 below.  Alternately, they will have already been resurrected shortly before the Second Coming as discussed in 2.5 above.

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 4.8 The Judgments Associated with the Second Coming of Christ

“They will sing before the LORD, for he comes, he comes to judge the earth. He will judge the world in righteousness and the peoples in his truth.”
Psalm 96:13

“The Lord is at your right hand; he will crush kings on the day of his wrath. He will judge the nations, heaping up the dead and crushing the rulers of the whole earth.”
Psalm 110:5-6

“Go, my people, enter your rooms and shut the doors behind you; hide yourselves for a little while until his wrath (i.e. the Tribulation) has passed by. See, the LORD is coming out of his dwelling to punish the peoples of the earth for their sins.
Isaiah 26:20-21

He has sent me …. to proclaim the year of the LORD’s favor and the day of vengeance of our God.
Isaiah 61:1-2 & Luke 4:18-19

“See, the LORD is coming with fire. …. For with fire and with his sword the LORD will execute judgment upon all men, and many will be those slain by the LORD.”
Isaiah 66:15-16

“Until the Ancient of Days came and pronounced judgment in favor of the saints of the Most High, and the time came when they possessed the kingdom.”
Daniel 7:22

“He (the Beast) will speak against the Most High and oppress his saints. …. The saints will be handed over to him for a time, times and half a time. But the court (of judgment) will sit, and his power will be taken away and completely destroyed forever.”
Daniel 7:25-26

“But I tell you that men will have to give account on the day of judgment for every careless word they have spoken.”
Matthew 12:36

The kingdom of heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field. But while everyone was sleeping, his enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat. …. ‘Let both grow together until the harvest. At that time I will tell the harvesters: First collect the weeds and tie them into bundles to be burned; then gather the wheat and bring it into my barn.’”
Matthew 13:24-25,30

The one who sowed the good seed is the Son of Man. The field is the world, and the good seed stands for the sons of the kingdom. The weeds are the sons of the evil one, and the enemy who sows them is the Devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the harvesters are angels. As the weeds are pulled up and burned in the fire, so it will be at the end of the age. The Son of Man will send out his angels, and they will weed out of his kingdom everything that causes sin and all who do evil. They will throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father.”
Matthew 13:37-43

The kingdom of heaven is like a net that was let down into the lake and caught all kinds of fish. …. This is how it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come and separate the wicked from the righteous and throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”
Matthew 13:47,49-50

“For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to all men by raising him from the dead.”
Acts 17:31

“Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.
Romans 8:1

“For we will all stand before God’s judgment seat.
Romans 14:10

“Just as man is destined to die once, and after that to face judgment, …. he (Christ) will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.”
Hebrews 9:27-28

“See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones to judge everyone, and to convict all the ungodly of all the ungodly acts they have done in the ungodly way, and of all the harsh words ungodly sinners have spoken against him.”
Jude 14-15

“Behold, I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to everyone according to what he has done.” Revelation 22:12, but also see Matthew 16:27. These indicate that the judgments associated with the Second Coming of Christ will include rewards for the righteous, similar to the rewards given to Church Age Believers at the Bema Seat Judgment (see 2.4) just after the Rapture.

The above scriptures indicate, in general terms, the judgments associated with the Second Coming of Christ. However, these judgments include the following three more specific judgments:

1) The Judgment of Living Israel (see 4.9 below),
2) The Sheep and Goats Judgment of Living Gentiles (see 4.10 below), and
3) The Judgment of the Resurrected Righteous Dead (see 4.12 below). The final Great White Throne Judgment of the unrighteous dead occurs later, after the 1,000 year Millennium (see 6.4).

Note that all judgments are judgments of individuals, not judgments of groups.

The overall result of the judgments associated with the Second Coming of Christ is that all unbelievers die. Therefore, only the righteous remain alive on earth, either in physical bodies or in resurrected bodies, at the beginning of the Millennium. See 4.11 below. Pentecost on page 420 of his book Things to Come says; “Scripture teaches that no unsaved person will enter the Millennium. (John 3:3; Matthew 18:3; Jeremiah 31:33-34; Ezekiel 20:37-38; Zechariah 13:9; & Matthew 25:30,46).” See also Isaiah 1:24-28; Isaiah 60:12; Isaiah 65:11-12; Isaiah 66:15-16; Jeremiah 25:15-16,29-38; Jeremiah 30:23-24; Ezekiel 11:21; Daniel 7:21-22,27; Micah 5:9,15; Micah 7:16-17; Zephaniah 3:8-9; Zechariah 8:20-22; Zechariah 14:16; Malachi 3:2-3; Matthew 13:40-42,49-50 & Romans 11:26-27.

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 4.9 The Judgment of Living Israel

The Jews who have lived through the Tribulation will be judged, soon after the Second Coming of Christ. This judgment is recorded in Ezekiel 20:33-38 as follows:

“As surely as I live, declares the Sovereign LORD, I will rule over you (Israelites) with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm and with outpoured wrath. I will bring you from the nations and gather you from the countries where you have been scattered. …. I will bring you into the desert of the nations and there, face to face, I will execute judgment upon you. As I judged your fathers in the desert of the land of Egypt, so I will judge you, declares the Sovereign LORD. I will take note of you as you pass under my rod, and I will bring you into the bond of the covenant. I will purge you of those who revolt and rebel against me. Although I will bring them out of the land where they are living, yet they will not enter the land of Israel. Then you will know that I am the LORD.”
Ezekiel 20:33-38

Walvoord in Major Bible Themes on page 346 says of these verses in Ezekiel: “On the basis of this text, re-gathered Israel is divided into two classes of people – those who have accepted Jesus as their Messiah and Savior and are counted worthy to enter the kingdom, and those who are still rebels, unbelievers, and are excluded and put to death.

“But who can endure the day of his coming? Who can stand when he appears? …. ‘So I will come near to you (Israelites) for judgment.’”
Malachi 3:2,5

“Surely the day is coming; it will burn like a furnace. All the arrogant and every evildoer will be stubble, and that day that is coming will set them on fire. …. But for you who revere my name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings.”
Malachi 4:1-2

“Jesus said to them, ‘I tell you the truth, at the renewal of all things (i.e. the Second Coming), when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’”
Matthew 19:28

The bridegroom arrived. The virgins who were ready went in with him to the wedding banquet. And the door was shut. Later the others also came. ‘Sir! Sir!’ they said. ‘Open the door for us!’ But he replied, ‘I tell you the truth. I don’t know you.’
Matthew 25:10-12

“Again, it will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants and entrusted his property to them. …. After a long time the master of those servants returned and settled accounts with them. …. ‘Well done, good and faithful servant! …. Come and share your master’s happiness!’ …. ‘You wicked, lazy servant! …. Throw that worthless servant outside, into the darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”
Matthew 25:14,19,21,26,30

“For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.’ In other words, it is not the natural children who are God’s children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring.
Romans 9:6-8

“And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: ‘The deliverer will come from Zion.’” Romans 11:26. The judgment of living Israel results in the death of all unbelieving Israelites. Therefore, it will literally be true AFTER this judgment, that every living Israelite going into the Millennium will be a believer saved by the grace of God, thus validating Romans 11:26.

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4.10 The Sheep and Goats Judgment of Living Gentiles

When the Son of Man comes in his glory (the Second Coming), and all the angels with him, he will sit on his throne in heavenly glory. All the nations (living Gentiles) will be gathered before him, and he will separate the people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. He will put the sheep on his right, and the goats on his left”
Matthew 25:31-33

This judgment occurs soon after Christ’s victorious return to earth. It is a judgment of those Gentiles who came through, and are still living after Daniel’s Seventieth Week. They are judged on how they treated “the least of these brothers of mine (the Jews),” per Matthew 25:40,45, especially during Daniel’s Seventieth Week when the Jews were being severely persecuted, even though it had then became clear to everyone that God claimed the Jews as his special people.

The details of the actual Sheep and Goats Judgment by Jesus Christ are recorded in Matthew 25:34-46. The results are that the righteous gentiles are given “eternal life” (Matthew 25:46), but those gentiles who are not righteous “will go away to eternal punishment” (Matthew 25:46) in “the eternal fire prepared for the Devil and his angels”
(Matthew 25:41).

Even though this judgment appears to be based on works (Matthew 25:35-36,42-43), this is not correct. The actions of the righteous gentiles in risking their lives by helping the persecuted Jews during the Tribulation is evidence of their saving faith in Jesus Christ. Thus, they too are saved by faith through grace, not by works (Ephesians 2:8-9). “Faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by action, is dead.” James 2:17

“I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse.”
Genesis 12:3

I will gather all nations (living gentiles) and bring them down to the valley of Jehoshaphat. There I will enter into judgment against them concerning my inheritance, my people Israel, for they scattered my people among the nations and divided up my land.”
Joel 3:2

“Let the nations be roused; let them advance into the Valley of Jehoshaphat, for there I will sit to judge all the nations on every side.”
Joel 3:12

“After he has …. sent me against the nations that have plundered you – for whoever touches you touches the apple of his eye – I will surely raise my hand against them.”
Zechariah 2:8-9

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 4.11 The First Resurrection – Of the Righteous Dead

I know that my Redeemer lives, and that in the end he will stand upon the earth.  And after my skin has been destroyed, yet in my flesh I will see God.”
Job 19:25-26

This quotation from Job indicates; 1) Jesus Christ will stand on earth in the end times, and 2) Job, and all other Old Testament saints, will be bodily resurrected in the end times to see God.  This bodily resurrection will occur after (or shortly before) the Second Coming of Christ to earth.  This is reinforced in the following Job and Isaiah quotations which also indicate that Old Testament saints will be bodily resurrected after the Tribulation:

“If only you would hide me in the grave and conceal me till your anger (NASB wrath, i.e. the Tribulation) has passed! …. If a man dies, will he live again? All the days of my hard service I will wait for my renewal (NASB change, i.e. resurrection) to come.
Job 14:13-14

“But your dead will live; their bodies will rise. …. Go, my people, enter your rooms and shut the doors behind you; hide yourselves for a little while until his wrath (i.e. the Tribulation) has passed by. See, the LORD is coming out of his dwelling (i.e. heaven) to punish the people of the earth for their sins. (i.e. at the Second Coming)”
Isaiah 26:19-21

The resurrection of the Old Testament righteous dead follows the Tribulation, as is also indicated in the following from Daniel:

“There will be a time of distress (i.e. the Tribulation) such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. …. Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake (be resurrected): some to everlasting life, others to everlasting contempt. …. At the end of the days you will rise to receive your allotted inheritance.”
Daniel 12:1-2,13

See also Ezekiel 37:1-14 where Ezekiel’s vision of dry bones coming back to life is said, in verse 11, to be the whole house of Israel (presumably only the righteous of Israel) being resurrected (at the Second Coming) to live in the land of Israel. This scripture ends with: “This is what the Sovereign LORD says: O my people, I am going to open your graves and bring you up from them; I will bring you back to the land of Israel. …. I will put my spirit in you and you will live, and I will settle you in your own land.”
Ezekiel 37:12,14

“I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death.”
Hosea 13:14

“You will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous.”
Luke 14:14

“Do not be amazed at this, for a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice and come out.
John 5:28-29

“Jesus said to her, ‘Your brother shall rise again.’ Martha answered, ‘I know he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day (i.e. the second Coming).’ Jesus said to her, ‘I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies.’
John 11:23-24

“For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive (resurrected). But each in his own turn; Christ, the firstfruits; then, when he comes, those who belong to him.
1 Corinthians 15:22-23

“To attain to the resurrection from the dead.”
Philippians 3:11

“Abraham reasoned that God could raise the dead.”
Hebrews 11:19

“So that they might gain a better resurrection.
Hebrews 11:35

“Blessed and holy are those who have part in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with him for a thousand years.”
Revelation 20:6

This resurrection of the righteous dead includes not only the Old Testament saints (see above), but also includes the resurrection of saints that die in the Tribulation, as is indicated in the following:

“And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony for Jesus and because of the word of God. They had not worshipped the Beast or his image and had not received his mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ a thousand years. (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended.) This is the first resurrection.”
Revelation 20:4-5

In summary, the bodily resurrection of the righteous dead includes three groups of saints:

1)  Church age saints who are resurrected into heaven at the Rapture (see 2.2),
2)  Old Testament saints who are resurrected at the time of the Second Coming of Christ; either: a) onto earth right after the Second Coming of Christ, or b) into heaven shortly before the Second Coming of Christ to earth (see above in 4.11 and see also the bottom part of 4.7 above),
3)  and Tribulation saints who die during the Tribulation are also resurrected at the same time as the resurrection of Old Testament saints (see 2) above).  Refer also to Revelation 6:9-11 and Revelation 7:9,13-14.

These saints all receive “resurrection” bodies and together this is called the first resurrection.  However, see the two qualifications below:

Church age saints include two groups as discussed in 2.2. The one group who are still alive at the time of the Rapture will have never died physically. Instead their bodies are “changed” per I Corinthians 15:51-52 to become imperishable resurrection-type bodies.

Tribulation saints who do not die physically during the Tribulation, will presumably continue to live during the Millennium with physical, but not resurrected bodies. They will live to an old age (Isaiah 65:20,22 & Zechariah 8:3-4), but may die during the Millennium (Isaiah 65:20). They bear children (Isaiah 65:23; Ezekiel 37:25 & Zechariah 8:5), but some of these children will be deceived by Satan at the end of the Millennium (Revelation 20:7-8). Those deceived are then killed by fire from heaven as described in Revelation 20:9. In any case, all saints from the Millennium will presumably thereafter have “resurrection” bodies in the new heaven and the new earth, where “There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away” per Revelation 21:1-4.

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4.12 The Judgment of the Resurrected Righteous Dead

“Just as man is destined to die once, and after that to face judgment.” Hebrews 9:27 This verse seems to indicate that ALL men face judgment after death. Therefore, the righteous dead (Old Testament saints and Tribulation saints per 4.11 above), who are resurrected at the Second Coming of Christ, presumably also then undergo judgment.

“God will bring to judgment both the righteous and the wicked.”
Ecclesiastes 3:17

“The LORD will execute judgment upon all men.”
Isaiah 66:16

Men will have to give account on the day of judgment for every careless word they have spoken.”
Matthew 12:36

“See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones to judge everyone.
Jude 14-15

“Behold, I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to everyone according to what he has done.” Revelation 22:12, but also see Matthew 16:27. These indicate that the judgments associated with the Second Coming of Christ will include rewards for the righteous, similar to the rewards given to Church Age Believers at the Bema Seat Judgment (see 2.4) just after the Rapture.

Note that all the above in Section 4 completes the prophecy of Daniel’s Seventy Week found in Daniel 9:24-27.

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